- What is a concept… it is something desituated but gains meaning from being situated. It therefore seems to gain purpose from being transferred to different contexts. In itself it is necessarily vague.
- ‘Topics’ are concepts that are situated. For example, is identity concept or a topic?
- Concepts can be Macro or Micro. Macro refers to ‘breadth’ whereas Micro concepts are ‘depth’.
- Obviously, we need to raise questions as to who chooses whether a concept is macro or micro.
- CBL suggests that macro concepts are those that transcend disciplines. But do they have credibility? Actual thinking power?
- Looking at literature – ‘character’ is a macroconcept. Would that make microconcept situated examples of that character? Hedged version of a character? E.g. antiheroes?
- Stresses the importance of situating our understanding of a concept in a few examples.
- Another example: Audience is a microconcept of communication. Can a microconcept be rethought of as a macroconcept? E.g. types of audience, contexts of production vs reception.
- ‘Macroconcepts have a greater transfer’ the abstraction of macroconcepts allows this.
- If we focus on these, do we sacrifice situated understanding? Or even ‘actual understanding’ . Without situated knowledge, how do we understand anything?
- However, I think that what is interesting here is that we need some situated examples, and those situated examples hope to help us to understand the whole.
- Generalisations have many names. They can also be called: an enduring understanding; a statement of inquiry; or a central idea.
- Definition = two or more concepts in a statement in a relationship. (macro or micro concepts?)
- Then does the transfer exist between two concepts? Or from that generalised understanding itself transferred (situated) to different contexts?
- Create generalisations from combining concepts.
- E.g. draw out four concepts from your unit.
- Then move these into a statement of relationships that represents…
- Preface with ‘The students will understand that…
- Only use two concepts per generalisation… the connection between the two is the most interesting.’
- E.g. Students will understand that….
1. Characters can use manipulation to achieve their own ambitions
2. Power relationships (gender, hierarchy etc…) form societies
3. A shift in power (dynamics) can challenge your values
4. That successful writing comes from the linguistic/stylistic devices and choices made by the writer.
- 1. representations of character may serve various functions in a narrative such as exemplars of perspectives or values, a contrast or parallel to others, drivers of action etc
2. How does literature present character development/transformation?
3. Literary devices are used for effect on the reader and to shape the meaning of a text
- These understandings are not entirely clear in themselves, but no more than objective really.
- To progress higher we seek to flip the generalisation into a question So ask ‘why’ or ‘so what’?
- Look at this example related to Edgar Allan Poe –
Guilt affects perception
Why does guilt affect perception?
My idea – Feelings of guilt instigate emotions that distort perception.
Their idea – Guilt narrows and intensifies focus and perception.
What is the significance of this distortion of perception?
My idea – Guilt distorts focus and perception so we don’t see reality as it might be.
Their idea Perception can cause people to make poor choices and decisions.
- Perception in itself does not cause poor decisions in itself – rather it is a distorted perception that can cause poor choices and decisions. Doestoeveksi would also argue that just the need for free will causes poor choices as well.
- As a writer’s craft idea
Sonic devices affect reading pleasure
Level 2 Why (they use a how)
My idea – Sonic devices emphasise or resonate with the figurative language of a text to increase harmony and reading pleasure
Their idea – Poetic methods such as sonic devices create a flow to the language through sound, rhythm, cadence and repetition
Level 3 So what is the significance of using these devices?
My idea – Poetic devices such as sonic devices increase aesthetic appeal by establishing a voice or pattern in a poem
Their idea – Poetic devices help to create the mood, emphasise words and enhance the aural appeal of a poem
- Don’t need to take every idea from level 2 to level 3
- Criteria used to check generalisation:
- 1 – 2: Do these ideas grow in sophistication?
- Do the ideas become clearer at level 2 because they become more specific (not necessarily situated)
- Do you answer your questions at each level?
- Also… are the verbs active and present tense? This encourages transfer.
- Also, are these ideas true? Do they aim for truth?
- Are these ideas developmentally appropriate – more important for elementary teachers.
- So, giving students banks of concepts, and seeing how people create their generalisations. This can help with thesis statements? This can help lead to evaluations in literature?
- .Do teachers need to write a level 1 generalisation every time?
- Intended to teach the scaffolding process… these are too distinct to express the relationship between concepts.
- Well-defined verbs create situated ideas
- Is a Level 3 better than a level 2 – level 2 is ideal? Scaffolding level 3 is a ‘new’ idea, and so therefore is not specific. I think that these are more to do with specifity or evaluative.
- 2/3rds of generalisation in a medium-term plan are Level 2, and 1/3rd level 3.
- Can be one level 3.
- Teacher planning is level 2 more than level 3 – advises to not label generalisations level 2 and level 3.